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The Newsletter of the Ottawa Centre, RASC
|Volume 58 – No. 6 – July 2019|
Remember back in January when the temperature was -25 and all you wanted to do
was stay inside close to the fire? Remember how the sunset before you get home
from work and you wished it didn’t set so early? Remember how you longed for the
nice warm days of summer and those long gentle evenings? Well here we are.
Temperature outside is hovering around 30 degrees and the sun doesn't set till 9ish.
If you wait until dark to set up your telescope it is likely to be dawn by the time
you're ready to start observing. Now it's too hot to leave the house with the comfort
of the air conditioner. And, of course there are the mosquitoes.
In last month's Astronotes I mentioned the possibility of a barbecue at the FLO this
weekend, however, we have decided to wait until the August 31 star party.
For our feature article this month we have part 2 of Dr. Janet Tulloch’s “Outstanding
Standing Stones”. Of course, we have all our regular features as well.
Sadly, we lost a friend in the past few weeks. Our videographer, Michel Bois passed
away suddenly on June 28, the same day he posted the videos of earlier meetings!
Michel described himself as being “shy and socially awkward” but he made many
friends at the Ottawa Centre and he will be missed. I am reprinting the “introduction” we ran in March
2018 where Michel describes himself in his own words.
This month is the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the moon. This is the reason a good
number of us are involved in astronomy and it is worth remembering the event. Due to poor planning
on my part our article on this monumental event will not be ready until next month's issue.
“I was born in Kapuskasing in Northern Ontario. My family moved a lot before finally moving to Ottawa in fall of 1966. As a result, I was extremely shy and socially awkward. Unknown to me and family at the time was that I had an auditory processing disorder, which meant I had difficulty understanding people at times. This is the reason I ask people to speak clearly and not fast.
In 1976 I started working as a page boy on Parliament Hill. Two years later I was posted to a permanent position in Parliamentary Television. I started taking courses in Electronics at night at Algonquin college.
During these years I got fascinated with the night sky. I moved to the eastern town of St. Albert. I lived in a mobile park just outside of town where I had a ¾ acre lot and little light pollution. That is when I bought my first scope, a 3-inch Bushnell Refractor.
I moved back to Ottawa after 4 years. At this point my personal confidence has grown immensely. In 1996 I finally got married and now have 2 daughters. My oldest wants to go to McGill university and study in science. My second one wants to be a veterinary technician.
In 2000 I was transferred to the support section where I worked until I retired in 2009.
I took a break for the first year, then took up a position as a school bus driver. Now I spend more time with my hobbies and family. I also got licensed to sell Insurance and Mutual funds as a result of working in Parliament and listening to the debates on things financial. Mostly I just love to help people in any way I can.”
By Dave Chisholm
Full moon on July 16
The Delta Aquarids is an average shower that can produce up to 20 meteors per hour at its peak. It is produced by debris left behind by comets Marsden and Kracht. The shower runs annually from July 12 to August 23. It peaks this year on the night of July 28 and morning of July 29. The waning crescent moon will not be too much of a problem this year. The skies should be dark enough for what could be a good show. Best viewing will be from a dark location after midnight. Meteors will radiate from the constellation Aquarius, but can appear anywhere in the sky.
Rise/Set 07:25/22:02 -> 04:53/19:21
Visible just before sunrise.
Rise/Set 04:30/19:57 -> 05:26/20:21
Visible first part of evening.
Rise/Set 06:59/22:06-> 06:43/21:01
Visible all evening.
Rise/Set 19:04/03:51 -> 16:56/01:44
Visible through the night.
Rise/Set 21:16/06:05 -> 19:10/03:57
At opposition (closest to Earth) on July 9th.
Visible before sunrise.
Rise/Set 01:47/15:33 -> 23:47/13:38
Visible before sunrise.
Rise/Set 00:09/11:22 -> 22:06/09:22
Outstanding Standing Stones – Part II
by Dr. Janet H. Tulloch
Quick Review of main points from previous presentation & article
- Parts of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney complex on mainland Orkney is older than Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England built in the Bronze age (ca. 2500 - 800 BCE)
- Builders were thought to be local people and stones were quarried from around the Orkneys.
- There is little doubt by those studying the monuments that there is a strong cultural connection among the complex of standing stones, the burial mounds, and the settlements throughout Neolithic Orkney. This connection encompasses ancestor veneration at a minimum but in the heart of Neolithic Orkney, it also includes communal feasting at the Ness of Brodgar.
- In addition, in the heart of Neolithic Orkney, this connection includes burial mound solstice alignments and, in some cases, standing stone alignment with the Winter solstice setting sun.
- Ongoing relations to ancestors by Neolithic Orcadians are the main interpretive thesis for the stone-mound-settlement complex of ancient monuments by contemporary scholars (archaeologists and ancient historians). However, such a thesis still begs a number of questions:
- How did Neolithic Orcadians understand the term “ancestor”? A spirit being? An animal? A physical structure such as a tomb? A standing stone?
- Did Neolithic Orcadians believe in an afterlife?
- If so, did ancestors have to travel to get there?What role, if any, did the sun, moon, solar year and night sky play in relation to ancestors?
- There are no ancient texts that have survived from Neolithic Orkney that could help us to answer these questions.
But luckily, since my last presentation/article, I heard from no less than five archaeologists who work for the Archaeological Institute of the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI) in Kirkwall, Orkney who responded to queries sent in February about Neolithic Orkney and the night sky. These responses included one from Nick Card, Director of the Ness of Brodgar archaeological site in the heart of Neolithic Orkney. Further research since my last article/presentation on North Ronaldsay and Neolithic Orkney now has me asking the question whether isolated islands like North Ronaldsay were in some way a microcosm or modified version of the ancestor-settlement-sky complex we see on Mainland Orkney.
The Heart of Neolithic Orkney, 3500-2500BCE
The heart of Neolithic Orkney is surrounded by 13 smaller burial tombs suggesting a strong connection to the oldest and largest communal burial site, Maeshowe, ca. 3500BCE which I spoke about last time. Maeshowe as we know has a well recorded connection with the setting sun of the winter solstice.
However, it is not the only Neolithic tomb in Orkney to experience a solstice event – only the most famous.
Other Neolithic tombs include Taversöe Tuick, on the island of Rousay, one of 16 known communal burial sites on this island just north of Mainland Orkney where Maeshowe is situated. This monument has two separate chambers, one above the other each with long passageways – a unique architectural feature seen at only one other Neolithic tomb (at Huntersquoy) on the island of Eday, Orkney. There’s also a third small chamber just outside the entrance to the lower chamber. The burial chambers in the main tomb were accessed separately and used sometime between 3500 and 2500 BCE. It is about 30' in diameter and is built on a hill so each passageway is at ground level, one on the uphill side facing north, the other on the downhill facing south.
The way one archaeologist from UHI described Neolithic tombs experiencing solstice events was rather unusual in that she said these tombs channel the solstice light - attributing an anthropomorphic identity and function to the tomb.
According to this same archaeologist, Maeshowe, is particularly unique in that it channels light past a standing stone that lines up with the hills of the island of Hoy further south. According to the Orkneyjar, “It has now been shown that the centre axis of the inner entrance passage [of Maeshowe] is directly aligned with the centre of the Barnhouse [Standing] Stone. From here, the line travels out to strike Hoy's Ward Hill, at a place where the sun sets 22 days before, and after, the midwinter solstice.” http://www.orkneyjar.com/history/maeshowe/solstice.htm
By way of a sidebar, this three-week period was referred to by Dr. Alexander Thom, a Scottish engineer who was chair of the Engineering Science department at Oxford University from 1945 until 1961, as a megalithic month (or a sixteenth of a year). Although Thom’s Megalithic measurement system could not be proven, and his hypotheses of ring circles as astronomical complexes was highly critiqued by the archaeologists of the day, Thom was no crackpot Druid, as he brought the practice of statistical testing of data - gleaned through the surveying of more than 500 British megalithic sites in his lifetime - to the new science of archaeoastronomy. His methodological contribution to the science behind the positioning of ring circles reverberates down to our own day whereby archaeological science journals no longer question the astronomical function of these circles but rather are asking which solar or night sky events do the stone circles target? And by what method can we best prove this statistically?
The Barnhouse Monolith
Standing just over three meters tall (10 ft), at the midwinter solstice, when the last rays of the sun are channeled through Maeshowe’s entrance, the sun’s position is directly over the top of the Barnhouse stone. This is an observable and well accepted fact.
It has been suggested that the Barnhouse Stone was an outlier or route marker to the standing stones of Stenness ring, the smallest on the Ness of Brodgar. If correct, we have a definite link between the stone rings and Maeshowe burial mound, between certain astronomical events and the Neolithic ancestors.
The Stone Rings on Mainland, Orkney
Stones of Stenness
Radiocarbon dating from Stenness excavations show that the site dates from at least 3100BCE, making the monument one of the earliest stone circles in Britain.
At a maximum height of six metres (19 feet), the megaliths make the monument visible for miles around.
The stone circle measures 32.2 x 30.6 metres (106 x 100 feet), surrounded by an earthen henge 45 metres (148 feet) in diameter, 4 metres (13.12 feet) across and 2.3 metres (7.5 feet) deep. The ditched enclosure had a single entrance causeway on the north side, facing the Neolithic Barnhouse settlement on the shore of the Harray loch. Little remains of the ditch today, although traces are visible around the stone circle.
Located by the south-eastern shore of the Loch of Stenness, only four of the ring's stones now remain. These Standing Stones were originally laid out in an ellipse as determined by the remaining socket holes. Although it is thought the monument was once made up of 12 megaliths, excavations in the 1970s suggest that the ring was never finished with at least one - possibly two - of the 12 stones never erected.
At the centre of the ring, is a hearth constructed from four large stone slabs. In 1907, a flat stone beside the hearth was lifted onto the middle stones to make the hearth look like a sacrificial altar. In 1972, it was taken down again.
Excavations around the hearth in the 1970s were inconclusive only confirming some form of stone structure had existed there but it was not possible to accurately reconstruct its shape.
In an article published August 2016 in Astronomy Now, and a few months later in the academic Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports for October 2016 (Vol. 9 pp. 249-258) researchers from the University of Adelaide claimed their new method of statistical testing could “enable[s] the quantitative determination of astronomical connections of stone circles.” [From the abstract] This claim implies that researchers could now determine statistically with high confidence whether a stone circle had purposely been created with sky events in mind.
The Standing Stones of Stenness was one of the sites examined in the study along with the Callanish Stones near the village of Callanish on the west coast of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Both these rings are thought to predate Stonehenge by about 500 years.
Image credit: Gail Higginbottom & Roger Clay / RCAHMS.
To determine whether the Stenness circle had purposely been created with sky events in mind the researchers using ordnance surveys calculated declinations for the following set of targets:
the Lunar Standstill extreme rising and setting targets (including major and minor paths), and four extreme solstitial targets.
About the Stenness circle the article states:” the builders engineered very particular horizon views (Figs. 5F and 6 & SM Fig. 8). [For example] the northern cardinal point in the Stenness landscape is closely marked with a horizon notch, with the rising and setting Major Standstill Moon placed very close to 25° either side of this [notch].” (Origins, p. 256).
The researchers also noted landscape patterns where the rings of various circles were situated concluding that “at 50 percent of the sites […], the northern horizon is relatively higher and closer than the southern; and the summer solstice Sun rises out of the highest peak in the north. At the other 50 percent of sites, the southern horizon is higher and closer than the northern; with the winter solstice Sun rising out of these highest horizons” (Astronomy Now, 19 August 2016). The Stones of Stenness site fits into the latter grouping. According to the researchers’ calculations, the likelihood of the monuments being [purposely] astronomical is above 97.87% for Stenness and 97.87% for Callanish.
Of interest, the function of the Stenness ring has been connected to the moon through Scottish folklore with one of the earliest accounts written, by a Reverend James Wallace, in 1684.
[ “Origins of Standing Stone Astronomy in Britain: New quantitative techniques for the study of archaeoastronomy.” Gail Higginbottom (a,b,⁎,) and Roger Clay, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia School of Archaeology & Anthropology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia]
Ring of Brodgar
The Ring of Brodgar is thought to be part of an enormous prehistoric complex that incorporates the Stones of Stenness, approximately one mile to the south-east, and, probably, the Ring of Bookan to the north-west and the Ness of Brodgar a land promontory).
Unfortunately, there has been limited scientific investigation of this site. Some work was done in the early 1970s and again in 2008. Archaeologists estimate the building of the Ring was begun around the year 2500 BCE. Given there has never been a major excavation of the entire site, dates for its construction are a bit vague. We do know that Brodgar is significantly later than the Stones of Stenness.
The ring is composed of an outer ditch, or henge, 340 feet across, measuring 3 metres (9.8 feet) deep and 5 metres (16.4 feet) wide. When the ring was erected, the Stenness loch did not exist. Instead the area was a wet, marshy bog, surrounding pools of water. [Orkneyjar] The henge was likely filled with water. No one is quite sure which came first, the henge or the stone circle but when the circle was finally finished, it resembled an island of standing stones. Opposing causeways still visible today give access to the ring in the south-west and north-east sections of the henge.
The circle of standing stones possibly numbered as many as 60 initially but now only 27 survive. They vary in height between 7 and 15 ft, making them much smaller than those at Stenness.
The stone circle is practically in the centre of a massive natural bowl formed by the hills of the surrounding landscape. From the circle, Professor Alexander Thom noted that the natural features in the surrounding landscape seemed to serve as distant markers for the rising and setting of the moon. A sightline to the cliffs of Hellia on Hoy, for example, seemed to mark the minor southern setting of the moon, while a notch on Mid Hill, to the south-east, defined the minor southern moonrise.
According to Colin Richards of UHI, a geological examination of the Brodgar megaliths confirmed that the stones had been brought from different areas across Orkney. These quarries, and the different types of stone obtained from them, in his view represent the different communities involved in the creation of the stone circle but nothing beyond that (i.e. no night sky or ancestor association). Richards suggest that it was the building of the circle itself that formed a kind of ritual or even a competition among Neolithic communities.
For others, the Ring points to the veneration of ancestors. It is surrounded by a complex of Bronze Age burial barrows, mounds, cairns and prehistoric earthworks. The most visible of these, the four mounds now known as Salt Knowe, Fresh Knowe, South Knowe and Plumcake Knowe, were excavated in the early 19th century.
Over time the site grew and undoubtedly had a few different functions, including rituals. The causeway through the “island of stones” certainly suggests a procession of some kind so that late Neolithic and Bronze Age people entered and exited the circle perhaps on their way to another ritual site.
South-east of the Ring of Brodgar and north west of the Stenness ring, stands a solitary monolith by the shore of Loch Stenness called The Watchstone. At one time there was a smaller second stone beside it. Given their placement, it is likely the two megaliths were once part of a stone-flanked ceremonial route like that at Callanish between the Ring of Brodgar and the Standing Stones of Stenness complex. At the very least, the two stones formed a type of doorway between the two rings.
Ness of Brodgar
- This site occupies a central position within the Orkney archipelago, between the Lochs of Stenness (salt water) and Harray (fresh water), in the middle of the islands’ most imposing complex of prehistoric monuments.
- From the Ness, you can see the Ring of Brodgar, the Stones of Stenness, Maeshowe, the Watch Stone and the Barnhouse Stone. On the south side of the Bridge of Brodgar, barely 300m distant, is the Neolithic settlement of Barnhouse, discovered and excavated by Colin Richards in the 1980s.
- A deeply stratified, multiphase complex. Peak period of use dates to ca. 3100BCE
- Ness was dominated by huge free-standing buildings with tiled roofs and enclosed by a massive stone wall.
- Structure 10, was erected in c.2900 BC – the last major building to be constructed at the Ness.
- The archaeology from the peak period suggests that people were feasting and exchanging objects -example of small pot nicknamed the “incense pot” - only other examples were found at Stonehenge
- Last use ca. 2400 when approximately 400 cattle were slaughtered and deposited around the structure.
Finds from the Ness of Brodgar
- All the main structures have yielded examples of decorated stone, which now total well over 800, and range from stunning examples of deeply incised, pecked, and cup-marked decoration, to a large proportion of lightly incised markings
- The site’s communal buildings cluster around a distinctive decorated standing stone
Numerous finds hint at long-distance contacts: pitchstone from Arran (which has only been found at two sites in Orkney: Barnhouse and the Ness); an axe blank from the famous Neolithic axe ‘factory’ at Langdale Pike, in the Lake District; amber beads, representing the most northerly occurrence of these in the Neolithic; and striking parallels with art from the Boyne Valley in Ireland.
Notes on North Ronaldsay
The same scholars who analyzed the Stenness ring circle state that: “Single standing stones (StS) are associated with, or part of, monuments dating from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age, such as at Callanish (or Forteviot, Stirling -a possible single StS marking a burial within a cemetery, the latter dated to 3090–2638 cal BCE; p. 251, Origins)
Of the five responses I received from UHI archaeologists, Julie Gibson wrote: “Standing stones are usually thought of as part of a Neolithic landscape (e.g. those in the World Heritage Area, Heart of Neolithic Orkney). Some, as I have heard alleged with [the North Ronaldsay stone], are passive participants in sun events (e.g. Barnhouse Stone, Maeshowe); others may be thought of as route markers. Each may have its own particular story to relate!
Nick Card responded by sending me proof pages from a 2005 book that included the following information on Neolithic North Ronaldsay:
According to the archaeological record from Historical Environment, Scotland [http://canmore.org.uk/site/3640 ]what has been found at Tor Ness is “a number of small rings of stones, … measuring 9' in external diameter and rising only about 6" above ground … showing little depth of soil. The stones have been carefully placed and [some] bear marks of fire recalling those found in larger mounds of prehistoric date.”
We might dismiss this finding as insignificant if it weren’t for the “eleven, turf-covered, stony mounds [or burrows -burial sites] varying from 3.0m to 12.0m in diameter, and 0.1m to 0.7m in height” found in the same area. “Some [mounds] have hollowed centres, and one (B) has an upright slab in its centre, oriented NE-SW and measuring 1.2m long and 0.4m high”:
“Two of the mounds (A & C) were opened with the assistance of the farmer at Nether Linay.
'A' - c3.5m in diameter, was found to consist of a heap of flat stones and earth laid on the old clay surface with no trace of interment.
'C' - c8.5m in diameter was of the same nature as 'A', but near the centre were two stones 0.5m & 0.7m long set an inch or two into the clay in the shape of an L with the short arm to the N and the longer arm to the E - 7. Unable to classify.”
We don’t have a date for this little complex, only descriptions that were part of the Orkney Burrows project in the 1990s, so we can’t say for sure if the site is prehistoric until dating tests have been done.
We do know there is a Skara Brae-like settlement not far from the Broch on the south end of North Ronaldsay. Howmae Brae is a large sand dune that, when excavated in the 19th century, revealed two round houses with outbuildings and a paved courtyard in the manner of the prehistoric Skara Brae settlement [http://www.charles-tait.co.uk/guide/orkguide/pages_2011/2011_21_nron.pdf].
So, my question is was Neolithic North Ronaldsay a microcosm of similar activity/placement that occurred at the Ness of Brodgar especially at the time of the Midwinter solstice? Travel at that time of year in small craft from an isolated island to meet up with other communities at the Ness of Brodgar for Midwinter Solstice celebrations would have been extremely dangerous. I was stuck in North Ronaldsay in the much warmer month of June in 2018 when a gale blew up and even the massive car ferry could not make the crossing from the Orkney Mainland! Given the tiny island’s single standing stone (a possible route marker stone) and near identical night sky to that of Mainland, Orkney, inhabitants of North Ronaldsay who followed the same standing stone-settlement-ancestor cosmology as others who gathered on the Mainland, could still join in on the Midwinter solstice festivities but celebrate them from the comfort and safety of their own homes on their own little sacred island.
Monthly Challenge Objects
Conjunction of Mercury and Mars, June 17 from Sandy Hill by Howard Simkover
The Siamese Twins (NGC4567 & 4568) by Paul Klauninger
The Eyes galaxies (NGC4438 & 4435) in Markarian's Chain by Paul Klauninger
Members In The News
RICHARD WAGNER - NATIONAL SERVICE AWARD CITATION
Rick Wagner is a Life Member and has been a member of the Ottawa Centre continuously since 1973, with the exception of one year in the Edmonton Centre. He has also been an associate member of Kingston Centre since 2012.
Although primarily a serious observer, Rick has also worked continuously at the Centre level throughout his membership, and often contributes at the National level as a National Representative on Council. Rick rewrote the Ottawa Centre's bylaws in the 1990s and has updated them as required when the RASC governance model was changed.
Rick was a member of the organizing committee of the 1990 Ottawa GA, a volunteer with the 2006 GA, and an invited speaker for the 2017 GA.
For many years Rick has been a frequent participant at Ottawa Centre’s member and public star party/observing sessions. On the Centre level, Rick has received the Centre Merit award and was twice the recipient of the Observer of the Year Award.
Rick has served the Ottawa Centre in many positions including First and Second VP, President, many years as centre executive member, multiple observing coordinatorships, two years as meeting chair, as National Council representative for Ottawa Centre for over 15 years plus acting as an alternate rep for many other Council Meetings.
At the National Level, Rick was Chair of the National Observing Committee for two years and his observations have earned him the Finest NGC Certificate, the Isabel K. Williamson Lunar Observing Certificate and he has completed the Lunar 1000 Challenge.
Rick splits his time between the Ottawa and Kingston Centres now that he has moved from the City of Ottawa to a rural home north of Kingston. Rick is currently President and meeting chair of the Kingston Centre, and has been their National Council representative for two years. He initiated their annual April Observing Session and has made dozens of formal presentations and informal observation reports to both Kingston and the Ottawa Centres.
Rick is always happy to offer help and advice to fellow members. He has been a frequent participant in work parties at the Ottawa Centre's series of Observing Sites: Quiet Site, North Mountain Observatory, Fred Lossing Observatory. He was also an early contributor to the Ottawa Centre’s SMARTScope Project and was a member of the SMARTScope development team for several years. When not working on RASC business, he spends much of his time trouble-shooting the electronic controls for his new observatory and writing scripts for collecting and analysing photometry data.
Estelle’s Pick of the Month
Carp Star Parties
Paul Sadler has been working very hard to get the Public Star Parties organized for this season and he has just received approval from the City for the following dates. As always, these are weather dependent and subject to change.
Saturday May 25th – Star Party at the Carp Public Library / Diefenbunker
Rain Date - Friday May 31st
Saturday June 22nd – Star Party at the Carp Public Library / Diefenbunker
Rain Date - Friday June 28th A Success!
Saturday July 27th – Star Party at the Carp Public Library / Diefenbunker
Rain Date - Friday August 2nd
Saturday August 24th – Star Party at the Carp Public Library / Diefenbunker
Rain Date - Friday August 30th
Saturday September 21st – Star Party at the Carp Public Library / Diefenbunker
Rain Date - Friday September 27th
Saturday September 28th – Star Party at the Astropontiac site in Luskville
No Rain Date
Friday October 18th – Star Party at the Carp Public Library / Diefenbunker
No Rain Date
Other Dates of Interest
Saturday October 5th – International Astronomy Day (Fall) at the Canadian Aviation and Space Museum
FLO Star Party Dates for 2019
Our Ottawa Centre’s Members Star Parties at the FLO will continue this summer. If you haven’t attended before, be sure to mark at least one of these dates on your calendar. You are welcome to bring family members or a guest.
SUMMER & FALL DATES
May 4 – New Moon Good turn-out, great night
June 1 – Waning Crescent Moon, 3.8% illumination No Go
July 6 – Waxing Crescent Moon, 19.7% illumination, sets 11:53P.M. NO GO
August 3 – Waxing Crescent Moon, 2 days old, sets 9:51 P.M.
August 31 – Waxing Crescent Moon, 2.4% illumination
Sept 28 – New Moon
October 26 – Waning Crescent Moon, 3.5% illumination
7:30 PM Friday August 9, 2019 at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum (directions). Note there is a $4.00 parking fee for museum parking. The meeting runs until 9:30 pm
PLUS: all our regular meeting features: Ottawa Skies, 10-minute Astronomy, Observer Reports, and of course, the beloved Door Prize!
All RASC monthly meetings are free and open to members and non-members alike. Refreshments will be available, and this will be a wonderful opportunity to meet new friends who share a common interest and chat in a relaxed, stimulating and fun environment. Please join us!
The Ottawa Centre 2018 Council
President: Mike Moghadam (email@example.com)
Vice President: Stephen Nourse
Secretary: Chris Teron (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Treasurer: Oscar Echeverri (email@example.com)
Centre Meeting Chair: Oscar Echeverri (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Councillors: Carmen Rush, Gerry Shewan, Jim Sofia
National Council Representatives: Karen Finstad, Ingrid de Buda
Past President: Tim Cole
2018 Appointed Positions
Membership: Art Fraser
Star Parties: Paul Sadler
Fred Lossing Observatory: David Lauzon & Rick Scholes (email@example.com)
Light Pollution Abatement: OPEN
Public Outreach Coordinator: OPEN
Hospitality: Art & Anne Fraser
Stan Mott Astronomy Library: Estelle Rother
Ted Bean Telescope Library: Darren Weatherall
Webmaster: Mick Wilson (firstname.lastname@example.org)
AstroNotes Editors: Gordon Webster & Douglas Fleming (email@example.com)